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Research | Definition, Types, Process, Importance, Nature & Precautions to Researchers

Research


What is Research ?


Research comprises of two words, "Re" and "search". While "Re" implies a repetitive or iterative process, "Search" denotes, making a thorough examination of or looking over carefully in order to find something. Different researchers have defined research in various ways due to its wide scope. But, in general, research can be defined as a scientific process where new facts, ideas, and theories are established and/or proved in different areas of knowledge. Research aims at adding to the existing stock of knowledge for the betterment of world.

Research involves scientific and systematic analysis of a research area and concluding the findings with appropriate reasoning. It is a systematic as well as an object-oriented process. The process of research begins with identifying the research problem; following data collection; data analysis, and ends with conclude the findings. It should be conducted in an unbiased manner, without manipulating the findings. Research plays a vital role in management decision making by analyzing the situation systematically and finding new ways to support the operations. For example, a company may conduct research to know the consumer reviews about certain products.

Research can be carried-out using various methods and techniques which are collectively called as research methods. Research methods are the tools and techniques for analyzing and collecting data so that meaningful outcomes can be extracted from the problem being studied. Research methodology can be defined as the scientific procedure to solve various problems related to research. It has a wider scope than research methods, as in addition to methods and techniques, the researcher designs different methodologies for different research problems. Research methodology varies according to the research problem. Therefore, it is concerned with the application of research methods as per the requirement.

Definition of Research


According to Waltz and Bausell :
"Research is a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts and relationships."

According to Clifford Woody :
"Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, Collecting, Organizing and Evaluating data, Making deductions and reaching Conclusions to determine they fit the formulating hypothesis."

According to John Best :
"Research is a systematic activity directed towards discovery and the development of an organised body of knowledge."

What is Good Research ? (Essential Criteria of a Good Research) 


A good research should qualify in following essential criteria :

1) Clearly Defined Objectives :
The objectives of a research study should be clearly defined. If the objectives of research are well defined, then there would be clear road map in front of the researcher to follow. It helps the researchers to determine the type of data required to conduct the research efficiently.

2) Ethically Conducted : 
A researcher should abide by the ethical standards laid down to conduct a research accurately. The research data and the limiting factors should be properly scrutinized, explained, and documented to maintain a level of transparency with the readers. The data should not be altered to match the findings. The results of the research study should be properly documented and the conclusions should be based on proper evidences.

3) Flexibility : 
Research involves re-examining the data till correct findings are arrived. This is possible only if the research approach is flexible in nature. There should always be scope to add en significant data or change the existing data as per the requirement.

4) Reliability : 
Reliability refers to the repeatability of a research, tool, procedure, or instrument. The degree of reliability of a research study depends on the degree of similarity in research results. A research, is called reliable when it produces similar results for different samples drawn from the same population under similar conditions and procedures. For example, a researcher may study the effect of a course in written English on the final grades for a group of students. The results of this study will be reliable, if the same study on another group of students has similar outcomes.

5) Validity : 
Validity is measure of the applicability of the research. It refers to the suitability and efficiency of the research Instrument or procedure regarding the research problem. It measures the accuracy of an instrument in measuring the problem. It is a measurement of applicability of the research. Validity is the basis of deciding whether a research conclusion, assumption, or proposition is true or false. The validity of research is maintained by defining the concepts as clearly as possible.

6) Accuracy : 
A research is called accurate, if the process of research, instruments, and tools are related to each other. It checks to see that the research tools are being selected appropriately. For example, if a research is carried-out on mental patients, the use of observation would be appropriate to collect data, because in case of questionnaire or interview, they may not be able to answer or may answer incorrectly.

7) Credibility of Sources : 
Credibility means that the research data should be taken from trustworthy sources. Although the use of secondary data in research allows the researcher 10 complete the research within the time frame, but he loses the credibility, as the secondary data are usually manipulated and hence relying exclusively it can lead to erroneous and faulty on it can research conclusions. A researcher should try to use primary data as much as possible. If primary data is not available, then specific amount of secondary data can be used. But, conducting a research completely based on secondary data can harm the credibility of the research.

8) Generalisable Results : 
The degree to which the result of a research can be applied to the bigger population is called as generalisability. While carrying-out a research, the researcher selects a small sample from a target population. Hence, the sample and the research findings represent the target population. If the research results can be applied to other samples from the similar population, then the research findings can be considered as generalisable.

Nature of Research 


Research can be characterized by following points : 

1) Systematic Activity : 
Research follows a systematic procedure to analyse a research problem in a better way. A research cannot be conducted in a haphazard manner. A researcher can come to a step only when the previous one completed.

2) Logical Process : 
The basic tenet of research is logic. All the assumptions and analyses undertaken are based on certain logic. Research is a scientific, systematic, and planned investigation to understand the underlying problem.

3) Iterative Process : 
Research is an iterative process. Sometimes it becomes necessary for the researcher to review the work of earlier stages, which makes it cyclic in nature. Often it becomes harder for the researcher to find out the starting and ending points.

4) Based on Empirical Evidences : 
Research studies are empirical in nature. Every step in research is carried-out using various scientific tools and techniques. Every step in research is checked for accuracy and is based on observable experiences or empirical evidences. Therefore, quantitative research is easier to validate than qualitative research, which is more conceptual in nature.

5) Controlled In Nature : 
The researchers often control the effect of variables by allowing only some variables to vary so that their effect can be tested. Due to this reason, controlling the variables in a scientific research is much easier than controlling the factors in a social research. Hence in research, it is very essential to control the variables carefully.

Importance of Research


Research plays a vital role for an organisation as it provides valuable information to the managers that help them in decision-making at various stages of operation. Research helps the management in following ways :

Significance of Research

1) Recognizes the Potential Opportunities and Threats: 
For any strategy to be successful, the organisation needs to have a very good understanding of the environment in which operates. Research is a tool with which management is able to scan its environment and identify various opportunities and problems existing in the environment By scanning and researching extensively, management understand the environmental can situations efficiently. This helps to formulate strategies in accordance with the situations to overcome the prevailing problems and exploit the opportunities to the fullest.

2) Assessment of Problems and Opportunities : 
Researching the problems and opportunities help the managers to estimate and analyse them. It allows the managers to identify the existing problems and the factors responsible for the problems. Research facilitates the managers in identifying, exploring, refining and quantifying the opportunities existing in the environment. Along with these, it helps in setting the priorities in case of multiple opportunities.

3) Selection of Best Alternative Action : 
Research assists the managers in selecting the best among the alternative courses of action. The various alternatives evaluated using specific evaluation criteria set by the researcher. Researchers forecast the necessary future activities to be taken with properly analyzing the scenario which in turn helps in planning. Research can also suggest strategies that managers should use in planning properly and preventing it from failing. For example, a company can research the best possible strategy for positioning of a product.

4) Evaluating the Course of Action : 
Research can be used to see if the planned course of action has been implemented in way was intended to. It allows the managers to estimate the extent to which a given activity or project is executed as per the direction. It helps to identify the potential factors that can affect the execution. Research is also carried-out to evaluate and control the strategies implemented for executing the project.

5) Analyzing the Competition : 
The organisations need to study the market and the level of prevailing competition in it To fulfill this objective, organisations conduct research to collect the information regarding the purchasing trends, competitor's strategy, market share of competitor firms, etc. This allows managers to formulae strategies that can help them in achieving their targets. For example, Pepsi Co. can conduct a research to know the strategies adopted by Coca Cola.

Types of Research 


Various types of research are classified as follows :

Types of Research

1) On the Basis of Application : 
Based on application, research can be classified in following two types :

i) Basic/Pure/Fundamental Research : 
Pure research is also known as "basic research" or "fundamental research". It is the most basic form of research. The objective of this research is to provide models and theories regarding some phenomenon. This type of research seeks to obtain knowledge about a particular subject rather than its practical usage, testing of hypotheses and theories. Basic research is carried-out to discover and gain better insight about a specific phenomenon, without considering the problem and its direct practical application. For example, designing a research model for reading behavior among teenagers has no practical application and it simply contributes to the area of knowledge. Basic research can take one of the following forms : 

a) Discovery : 
When the objective of a basic research is to discover, then it tries to find new explanations or ideas about a particular issue based on empirical evidences. For example, the theory given by Charles Darwin on "the survival of the fittest".

b) Invention : 
Designing new methods and techniques can be the prime purpose of basic research. For example, inventing the concept of total quality management.

c) Reflection : 
Here, the researchers analyse the, theories, models, or techniques in some different organisational or social contexts. For example, applying the concept of Herzberg's Two Factor Theory on Indian Army.

ii) Applied/Practical/Need-Based/Action Based Research : 
Applied research is also called as "practical research", "need-based research" or "action-based research". While basic research emphasizes on enhancing the existing knowledge without any practical application, applied research on the other hand, applies the existing knowledge, theories, and methods to solve particular issue. Basically, it is the practical application of the concepts provided by basic research. It tries to solve the existing problems faced by businesses, society, and government. Applied research tries to provide the solutions to eradicate the various types of practical problems related to real life and social life.
For example, when a sociologist tries to find out the reason for crime, or the factors that lead a person to become criminal, is the area of pure research. But, when the sociologist tries to find out how the behavior of a criminal can be controlled, it falls in the purview of applied research.

2) On the Basis, of Objectives : 
Following Researches can be conducted on the basis of objectives :

i) Exploratory/Formulative Research: 
Exploratory research is also known as "formulative research". The basic objective of this research is to explore the unknown facts or phenomena that are not previously defined. In exploratory research, researchers seek to gain better knowledge about a situation, and formulate new concepts and theories by developing and testing hypotheses. A hypothesis becomes difficult to be formulated when the theory is too general or too specific. Here, exploratory research is needed to obtain the knowledge that is useful in developing hypothesis, so that further investigation can be performed. Exploratory research helps the researchers to find out the best research methods, research designs, and data collection techniques for various research objectives.
For example, exploratory research can be used to determine the reasons behind the higher terrorism rule in a country than other nations.

ii) Descriptive/Statistical Research : 
Descriptive research can be defined as the research that tries to explain the characteristic features of the population under study. This research is based on the concept of 'reflective thinking' that discusses about the objectives and assumptions regarding a research study. Descriptive research is concerned with answering the questions like who, what, when, where, and how regarding a phenomenon or situation. It can be carried out on all those areas which are quantitative in nature. The descriptions in this research are used to calculate the frequencies, averages, central tendencies, etc. Sometimes, it is better to conduct a survey before carrying out the descriptive research.
For example, a research can be conducted to examine the causes behind a specific kind of disease in a particular area. 

iii) Experimental/Causal/Explanatory Research : 
Experimental research, also called "causal research" or "explanatory research", is carried out to identify the causes I any effect. It determines the effects on dependent variable due to the changes in independent variable. In experimental research, two similar groups are chosen for measuring the experimental effects. The group which is exposed to treatment is called the 'experimental group, and the group which is kept constant is called "control group'. After the treatment is imposed on the experimental group, the effect is measured by comparing it with 'control group. The treatment effects are thus identified. The outcomes of the experimental research are not always straight and direct due to the variability factors. Hence, to measure the results accurately, it is necessary to keep the control group constant while modifying experimental group.
For example, a primary school teacher may want to evaluate a new technique for teaching mathematics in comparison to the standard teaching method.

3) On the Basis of Extent of Theory : 
On the basis of extent of theory research can be classified in two types :

i) Theoretical Research : 
Theoretical research seeks to add new knowledge by discovering new ideas and theories with the help of existing theories and explanations. But, the major emphasize is on studying rather than testing the theories and models, In other words, it is based on secondary data instead of primary data. Besides many benefits, theoretical research has always been the subject of criticism. The reason behind various arguments is that theoretical research has no test component. Many researchers say that theories are easy to formulate without the need of evidence, which is why it should not be considered as a proper academic research. But, the basis of this argument is not true. Every research needs conceptualization. Theoretical research strives to gain knowledge about the existing theories to improve the body of knowledge through addition of value to it. 
For example, an organisation may conduct a research on its employees and their motivation levels based on Herzberg's two-factor theory.

ii) Empirical Research : 
Empirical research is data-oriented. This kind of research provides insights through observation or experiences. In this research, the primary data are collected, analysed and tested to prove some hypotheses. Empirical research can be conducted through both the qualitative and quantitative approaches. For example, Major researches conducted on health issues usually adopt empirical research. Instead of theories, empirical research is based on observation and measurements. It attempts to develop new ideas by collecting primary data. Hence, the basic, difference between theoretical and empirical research is that, in theoretical research the researcher arrives at the conclusions based on existing literature, while in empirical research the researcher takes a step further and collects the data to test the theory. 
For example, measurement of noise pollution in cities to find out the exposure to sound faced by the citizens.

4) On the Basis of Methodology : 
Based on methodology adopted, research can be of two types :

i) Qualitative Research : 
Qualitative research is conducted to study and analyse the human behavior. It is considered as a preliminary stage of quantitative research. research is carried out when there is a need to Qualitative develop new ideas and theories that can be tested and analysed afterwards quantitative measures. It tries using findings in a broad level. The p objective of qualitative research is evaluate and The prime to get an in-depth knowledge about a particular behavior by collecting fresh and new information by using various techniques. The perceptions of respondents about their environment, the impact of environment on the behavior of respondents, etc., can be understood with the help of qualitative research.
An example of qualitative research can be, conducting a survey to know the target customers habits and buying preferences for launching a new product 

ii) Quantitative Research : 
Quantitative research is contrary to qualitative research. is a scientific technique that analyse the data using statistical measures for concluding the outcomes of a research problem. Various researches on science, social science, education, etc., are conducted with the help of quantitative research. In quantitative research is carried out in a structured way to develop and test various hypotheses using mathematical and statistical techniques. For example, a research can be conducted to compare the effect on crime rule due to gun buyback program.

5) Other Types : 
Along with the above major research types, there are, some other types of research: 

i) Evaluation Research : 
Evaluation is defined in many ways as per the objective of the research study, the techniques applied, or the application of outcomes. Usually, it can be defined as the systematic measurement and judgement about a situation to provide the feedback. The evaluation is always based on some criteria. The most common criteria used for evaluating an object are benefits, efficiency, sustainability, applications, etc. Generally, the emphasis of evaluation research is on the utilitarian benefits an object. It strives to understand an activity or an object by assessing and examining it, based on some criteria. In other words, it is a comparative analysis. where the original objectives of study are assessed to determine way of their way of accomplishment, so that it can improved. It can also take the form of summative study, where conclusions are made to infer the shortcomings of the study. 
For example, a manufacturing firm can evaluate its performance after using just-in time method in its production system.

ii) Action/Participatory Research : 
Action research is also called as "participatory research", where active problem-solving is done by the individuals of a team in an organisation to improve the method of solving issues. In this process, the employees of an organisation contribute collectively to bring the change through the research process. Action research is also practiced by big institutions to enhance the strategies and techniques adopted by them for their operations. Action research is an organised form of investigation which is collective and evaluative in nature. It tries to correlate the problem-solving methods with the research of analysis so that future changes in an organisation can be predicted. 
For example, a research can be conducted to know the best applicable method for certain type of students.

iii) Historical Research : 
Historical research is an organised to collect the data regarding historical events, analyzing them, and interpreting the events. It is carried-out to identify the causes, effects, and trends regarding past occurrences to improve the present and future. Many modern practices and techniques can be developed and improved with the help of historical data. Usually, the approach used for historical research is qualitative in nature, but sometimes quantitative measures can be adopted. Historical research tries to identify, the past forces that affect the present. An example of historical research can be finding out major earlier organisational practices that can be implemented in contemporary organisations.

iv) Ex-Post-Factor : 
Ex-post factor research is a systematic effort to trace-back the causes resulting in specific effect. In this research, the actions that has caused the effects are identified, which are then imposed on some other similar set of circumstances. It is conducted after the completion of a phenomenon or occurrence. Ex-post factor research is a scientific analysis of independent and dependent variables. Since, the phenomenon has already occurred, therefore, the researcher has no direct control over the independent variables causing the effects. Thus, the conclusions regarding the variables and their relations are made without direct involvement.
For example, forensic research department may attempt to find the causes for certain crime.

13 Steps of Research Process


Discovering and analyzing a range of significant and reliable information about a particular issue or problem with systematic planning is known as research process. This process involves several steps for complete analysis of the research problem. These steps are required for identifying and analyzing important information about a research topic. The steps in research process are described below.

Steps in Research Process

1) Selecting the Research Topic : 
In order to carry out the research in an orderly and coherent way. a sequence of actions or steps is needed to be followed. The foremost work in this direction is selecting a topic for the research. While selecting the topic for research, the foremost task is to narrow down the potential ones among the available issues in that particular area of research. While selecting research topic, the researcher should keep in mind that the research problem should be neither too broad nor too narrow. The research topic should be selected in a way that can be clearly defined and understood. Since, it is not a methodical step hence, selecting a research topic requires knowledge and significant time.

An efficient research study begins with a research topic. Research topic should be defined in such a way that the further stages can be carried-out effectively. As soon as the research topic and related questions are formulated, researchers proceed further to select research design and collect data. Hence, this step should be performed carefully, as it one of the most important foundations for making decisions.

2) Defining Research Problem : 
The next step of research process after selecting research topic is defining research problem. The research problem should be defined clearly and precisely. The research problem which is clearly defined solves half of the problem. Defining the research problem precisely for some researches is not possible. For example, defining research problem for poor sales is a difficult task, as it needs exploratory research to explore the area further.

A well-defined research problem is crucial for fulfilling the requirements of a research study. In this step, all the aspects of related to the research problem are identified after which a problem statement is formulated. Many crucial decisions are based on the problem statement. If the problem statement is defined precisely, then it helps the researchers to select the research design and data collection methods easily. Research problem should be defined in such a way so that all the time, money and effort put forward for the research does not go wasted. This is the most critical step in all the research process as improper definition of the research problem can cause the failure of entire research study.

3) Objectives of Research : 
After defining the research problem, the next stage is to set the research objectives. Research objectives defined in clear terms help the researchers to proceed in certain direction. It prevents the researchers from further distractions and enables them an issue to focus on. Research objectives construct the foundation for the research work. It is on essential ingredient of a research, as the entire effort and resources are applied to accomplish the research objectives. It helps the researchers to provide answers for the specific research questions. 

Thus, determining research objectives is the critical part of the research process at it supports the completion of the whole research. While defining research objectives the researchers should always remember that these should be comprehensive as well as attainable. The objectives of the research are helpful in clarifying the type and level of information required for completing the research. This information requirement is father described by the nature of the research as well as by design used in the research. These objectives are the focal point of the any research as answering questions related to these objectives, would result in the completion of the procedure.

4) Literature Survey : 
The next step in the process of research is to analyse the available literature related to the research area. Available literature's allow the researcher to analyse the previously researches that have been published by different researchers in that field. The prime purpose of literature survey is to provide the researchers an idea about the area of knowledge and highlights the issues that needs be researched. Hence, surveying the literature is one of the most important steps in the research process. Often literature survey provides data accumulated during a certain time-period. It generally has a specific organisational pattern, but it can also contain just the summaries of sources. While summary includes reviewing important information from different sources, the synthesis of information. This reshuffling or of information is the helps the researchers in developing new interpretations from the old information. This literature review may also be useful in developing intellectual knowledge of the research area along with significant arguments or discussions. Literature survey guides the researchers to evaluate the sources, and recommends them to collect data from relevant literature's only.

5) Formulation of Hypothesis : 
When literature is thoroughly surveyed, the researchers move to the next step, i.e., formulation of hypothesis. To formulate research hypothesis, the prime task is identify the potential variables of the study, after which relationship statement is formulated on the basis of an expected relation between the variables, This statement is more focused compared to the research objectives. 
For example, in case of research problem related to effect of violent content of TV on behavior of children, the hypothesis may be formed as "Violent content of the TV is responsible for the aggressive behavior of the children". Here violent content of the TV is independent variable and behavior of children is dependent variable, and a positive relationship is predicted by the researcher.

The dependent and independent variables along with target population are also described with the help of hypothesis to make the research subject clearer. The collected data is analysed and tested to prove the hypothesis and establish a relation between variables.

6) Selecting Research Design : 
Next step in the research process is developing the research design. Research design allows the researchers to answer To the research questions in an accurate. economical, and objective manner. Any research design performs two major functions : 
  • Preparing a s a structured plan outlining various methods and techniques required in conducting the research.
  • Making sure that these methods and techniques are suitable for the research. It also ensures that these techniques will help in finding objective, precise, and suitable answers to the research questions. This function is called "control of variance".
With the help of research design, a researcher is able to decide the necessary tasks to perform at each step of the research. This plan helps in effective utilization of time and resources. Therefore, research design con also o be referred as the blueprint of the research. Research design is prepared to regulate and control every step of the research, which is the most vital issue of any study. Hence, it is considered as one of the most crucial stages in the entire research process.

7) Sample Design : 
As soon as the design of research is selected, the next task is to select the sample design. Sample design sets a platform for effective data collection and analysis. A sample design is responsible for the effective selection of research samples. Selecting sample design affects many aspects related to the research work. Hence, selection of suitable sample design should be carefully performed. Designing of sample includes many important decisions such as deciding the sample frames, selecting suitable sampling technique, determining sample size, etc. Sampling design should be performed in such a way that the quality of research is maintained in an economic way. Sample design permits the study of a representative part of the target population, which results in reduction of unnecessary utilization of money, time, and effort. This representative part or sample provides useful information which represents the larger target population.

8) Collection of Data : 
After finalizing the sample in the previous step, the required data is collected from the sample of population. Actually this step is an intermediary stage between theoretical and practical aspects of a research. In the beginning of the research process, a basic Idea about research problem is developed with the help of available knowledge. After the research problem is formulated, data collection is systematically. Without having accurate data about the research problem, complete information performed is not possible to study as it works as a source of helpful in getting the solution. The methods used for data collection depend on the type and nature of the research. The few common methods are surveys, interviews, observation, case studies, etc.

Before collecting the data it is necessary for the researcher to select the research area, define the research problem/question, and select samples. Data collection is done prior to the phase of data analysis and reporting. The data collected is analysed and used for either supporting or replacing the philosophies presented by earlier related researches. Data collection plays a crucial role in combining the theories with their practical applications.

9) Execution of Project : 
It is the next step in the research process after the collection of data. In this step, the real execution of the research takes place. It is also known as the implementation stage of the research process. This step is responsible for the systematic execution of the research in reasonable time. The correctness and reliability of the collected data depends upon the efficient and feasible execution of the research process. To ensure smooth execution of research project, structured questionnaire can be used, where the questions and answers should be machine-coded. Various types of interviews can also be selected for data collection, but the interviewers should be trained and skilled enough. In this step, the researcher ensures that the research is executed as per the pre-set standards. Research process should be executed in an ethical manner. There should be no restriction on publishing of collected data. Other important aspects of the execution step are interpreting data accurately, and designing suitable formats for presenting the findings to particular audiences.

10) Analysis of Data : 
After collecting data and successfully executing the fieldwork, the collected data are analysed. Data analysis is very essential to draw-out the required information from the raw data by making it organised and meaningful. Organizing and analyzing the data facilitates the researchers to understand the feature of sample. There are many techniques available to analyse the data. Sometimes during -data analysis, researchers manipulate the data to get desired conclusions or outcomes. Therefore, it is very important for the researchers to pay attention to the data analysis process and the procedure through which calculated outcomes are calculated. Though data collection provides a lot of raw data, but these data are unorganized in nature. By analyzing the data, data are organised in such a manner that it provides meaningful answers. For example, responses of a survey may be compared to know the number of individuals attending the survey as well as the approaches used by respondents to answer certain questions. Analysed data can be visualized with the help of graphs, charts, tables, etc. the graphical representation of data allows the researchers to rearrange and reorganize the data so as to minimize the effort put by the readers in searching the significant information. By showing the analysed data graphically, presentation becomes easy to understand.

11) Testing of Hypothesis : 
The next step after analyzing the data is to test the previously formulated hypothesis. In this step, researchers perform certain statistical calculations to accept or reject the hypothesis. Based on the collected data, a suitable hypothesis about a probability distribution is chosen. This stage comes under the purview of statistics as the analysis is performed with the help of statistical techniques. The prime motive behind testing a hypothesis is to check its accuracy. By testing a hypothesis researchers can check whether it represents the population at large or not, as the hypotheses are. formulated on the basis of sample. A hypothesis is said to be accurate if it shows the true differences and does not contain random sampling error.

12) Generalization and Interpretation of Data : 
As the collected data is analysed through different statistical techniques and methods, the final results should be given value and meaning. The meaning and valuation of the results depend upon the process of interpreting results. On the basis of interpretations, various conclusions and generalizations are made. Researchers can generalize the research results if they conduct the testing a number of times, and the outcomes are found similar, every time. But, if there is no hypothesis, then the outcomes are explained on the basis of some theories or concepts. This explanation often triggers new issues for further researches. Generalization means applying the findings and conclusions of the research to the actual world. Outcomes from the research can be interpreted in two possible ways :
  • Drawing inference from the outcomes to develop theories or concepts. In this case, the results are concluded on the basis of a general statement.
  • Examining the data empirically and applying it to the larger population. In this case, the general statement is applied to the bigger area.
The process for developing the general statement is same for both the cases, but the nature of statement differs according to the nature of research problem, i.e., theoretical or empirical. After analyzing the data, researchers try to interpret the findings on the basis of theoretical and practical objectives of research. Data Interpretation is a step of research process where the measurements and statistical observations of the study are scrutinized to develop evidences for responding to a research problem.

13) Preparation of Research Report : 
The final step of any research process is the preparation of research report. After collecting, analyzing, and interpreting the data, the next task is to compile all the steps and present those phases in a written-form. It includes detailed description of research design, sample design, tools for data collection, and statistical techniques for the analysis of the collected data. Since, research report is very useful for current as well as further researchers, hence proper care must be taken while preparing the report. Report writing needs skills and knowledge so that appropriate data can be appropriately represented. The report writing skills may be developed through practice, but a researcher should always follow the basic principles of report writing. Some of the important skills needed are clarity, coherence, objectivity, etc. a research report efficient if it is able to communicate and present the research data. Usually, management as well as the audience is not interested in the details of statistical calculations and its procedures, hence, the researcher should try not to overload the report with such specifics. Therefore, much care is required for the effective preparation of research report to make it useful for the management and audience.

Precautions to the Researchers


By taking following precautions, researchers can overcome the problems :

1) Training of Researchers : 
The foremost necessity is to thin the researchers in various aspects of research methodology. This objective can be achieved by conducting various training sessions for the researchers that will help them in enhancing their knowledge and skills. 

2) Association among Organisations : 
In India, there is a need of a strong association among various organisations and research institutions to conduct the research in a proper way. This can be achieved by communicating the requirements with each other. This coordination and support will lead to enhance the quality in research work with valid and reliable outcomes.

3) Building Trust : 
Researchers should try to build trust by not misusing the data provided by the companies or individual respondents. The research institutions should provide assurance to the respondents regarding the confidentiality of their data.

4) Centralized Database :
All the organisations and research institutions together should create a centralized database for maintaining the records of their conducted researches. This will allow the researchers to refer and analyse the previously conducted researches for their work thereby minimizing the repetitive research works.

5) Compilation and Revision : 
The repetition of research work can be minimized by periodically analyzing the related research works. The researchers should be attentive about the research problems being studied by other researchers, and current requirements of different industries.

6) Top Management Support : 
Management should also support the researchers in their research studies. They should try to facilitate all the possible data to the researchers for conducting research properly. Management can also allow access to the various libraries for efficient research work.

Types of Business Problems Encountered by the Researcher


Unlike other nations, in India, the need and importance of research is not yet realized. Hence, it faces several barriers which are as follows :

1) Lack of Fund : 
Researchers need sufficient fund to conduct a research properly. But, companies do not sufficiently allocate funds for the research and development activities. Due to the lack of sufficient fund, several research projects either get delayed or do not proceed further.

2) No Centralized Database : 
There is no centralized database system available for research in India, due to which it is very difficult to find the information about already conducted related researches. The consequence of this barrier is the repetition in research works which is carried out by different organisations.

3) No Coordination among Researchers : 
Research work requires a strong code of conduct to be followed. The researchers do not follow the norms due to which they have no coordination. This results in difference of opinion among them which in turn affects the quality, of research work.

4) Lack of Library Management : 
The libraries in India are not managed properly. There is lack of books, journals, and reports in libraries, due to which the crucial time of researchers are wasted in finding the useful information from available material.

5) Absence of Ethics In Research : 
Researchers in India have no proper knowledge about the domain due to which they copy the material from other research works instead of conducting the research on their own. As a result, the accuracy and validity of the research outcomes are highly unreliable. The absence of ethics in research is one of biggest problem that can be solved by following the ethical norms while researching.

6) Lack of Proper Contacts between Research Departments : 
Research is a well co-ordinated activity of the concerned departments conducting it. The lack of coordination among the researchers of the related departments leads to biasness in the research. Due to this barrier research works lack the huge amount of primary data may remain unavailable to the researchers which may hamper the quality of research.

7) No Trust en Researchers : 
Many of the organisations do not cooperate with the researchers due to lack of trust. Companies show unwillingness to share information, because of the risk of misuse of data. 

8) Lack of Skilled Researchers : 
Research is a systematic procedure and requires the researcher be well-trained in collecting data, sampling and analysis. But, the researchers in India have no expertise in research methodology. Most of the research guides have no knowledge regarding the tools and techniques used in research. This. lock of skilled manpower is a big limiting factor in the research environment in India, as it directly affects the reliability of research work being done. Hence, the organisations should train their researchers in specified area of knowledge.

9) Data Manipulation : 
Researchers often manipulate the data to present it the way they want. The reason behind this manipulation is the lack of confidence on the outcome of the research activity. This results in a false picture of a research work and leads to severe impact on both the accuracy and validity of research. The researchers conduct their activities on the basis of mere theoretical knowledge which is not sufficient, since the knowledge of theory and its application are two different aspects. Hence, a proper knowledge of theory as well as correct practical implementation is necessary for a good research work.

10) Costly Affair : 
Printing and publishing the research work proves to be costly for the research associates. If the research paper is to be published internationally then it requires more fund, which is not affordable for many researchers.

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