Presentation of Research Report

✏ Table of Content :

What is Research Report Presentation ?

A presentation may be defined as a demonstration by a speaker to an audience, with the objective of providing them with a solution to a problem or imparting knowledge about a subject or product. Presentation is a two-way process where the speaker demonstrates his/her ideas and the audience evaluates the same, simultaneously.

A research report presentation is a formal way of presenting the findings, methodology, and conclusions of a research study to an audience. It typically involves creating a visually appealing slide deck or document to convey the key points and data from the research.

The main aim of a report presentation is to educate the audience on a particular topic, be it an idea or a product, in order to help them understand it better. This way, a presentation aims at benefitting both the audience and the firm. A presenter is required to not only possess skills that can effectively get the message across the audience but also be able to answer any queries that may arise during the process.

In a research report presentation, it's important to engage the audience, maintain a clear and logical flow, use visual aids effectively, and deliver a confident and professional presentation style. The presenter should be prepared to answer questions and facilitate discussion at the end of the presentation.

Factors Affecting a Research Report Presentation 

The efficacy of a report presentation depends on the following factors:

1) Audience Evaluation: 
If a speaker is able to correctly evaluate the aptitude of the audience and thereon, employ tools that best suit this evaluation, he/she will be able to deliver an effective presentation.

2) Environment: 
The ambience of the room where the presentation is taking place is also subtly determines how the audience will respond to it Factors that best contribute for creating an ideal environment may include good audio-visual effects, suitable lighting, comfortable room temperature, appropriate seating, etc.

3) Presenter's Appearance: 
As important as a speaker's demonstration skills, are his ability to dress well and look appealing. A well-groomed appearance has been known to make audiences more receptive.

4) Use of Visuals: 
Research has often shown that the use of modem and good quality audio-visual techniques has been successful in engaging the audiences more. A well-engaged audience. In turn, helps increase the credibility of the speaker. However, it is imperative that the speaker ensures that all such equipment is in good working condition before the start of the presentation.

5) Opening and Closing of Presentation: 
The opening and closing of a presentation are also crucial markers that help determine the effectiveness of a presentation. The opening of a presentation helps in setting the mood of the audience and a good opening can be attained by using tools of humor, anecdotes, and other techniques that can get the audience hooked. The closing of a presentation, on the other hand, shows whether or not the message was clearly conveyed to the audience and how satisfied they are at the end of it. A presenter, therefore, must be skilled in this area to be able to leave a lasting impression.

6) Presentation of Organization: 
A presenter must invest ample time in organizing the presentation to make it more effective. Relevant topics must follow each other logically, transition from one topic to another must be gradual and smooth, and the amount of time the presenter decides to spend on each topic must be well-justified.

7) Language and Words: 
Language is the essence of communication. Effective communication can be achieved when the language used is simple so it can easily be grasped by the audience. In addition, it is also important that the speaker carefully selects the idioms and phrases, quotes, and other verbal tools in his/her presentation so they can leave a lasting impression on the audience.

8) Quality of Voice: 
Voice modulation is an effective tool to keep audiences engaged in a presentation and can be achieved by variations in the presenter's tone, pitch, volume, etc. A flat tone through the presentation will not be able to achieve the desired effect.

9) Body Language: 
By now it has been established that content and visual appeal alone cannot make a presentation effective. Various aspects of human behavior also play a key role in this. One such aspect is the speaker's body language. A speaker's body movements must exude confidence and not anxiety or nervousness. The audience will be more receptive to a confident speaker than one who avoids eye contact or reads the presentation out like n speech, rather than an active demonstration.

10) Handling of Question-and-Answer Sessions: 
Last factor is the speaker's ability to handle the question- and-answer or Q&A session that usually follows the presentation. An in-depth knowledge of the content, the speaker's ability to handle challenging questions, and the ability to stay composed during this session can also make the presentation effective. Although the Q&A session is the last aspect of a presentation, the failure of the speaker to handle it well can cause damage to the presentation's effectiveness and the speaker's credibility.

Techniques of Research Report Presentation

The following techniques can be used for report presentations in research methodology :

1) Audio-Visual: 
Audio-visual aids can make a presentation come alive and make it more appealing to the audience. By making use of the virtues of both sound and sight, which odd drama to the ordinary use of words and simple visuals, a presenter can ensure that the audience is not only gripped in the presentation but will also remember what was said and shown. The key for making most of audio-visual aids is for the presenter to know how and when these aids are to be applied, Any mismanagement at the end of the presenter will defeat the purpose of utilizing these aids. Some of the most frequently used audio-visual aids are VCD or DVD players, projectors, televisions, computers, and surround sound systems.

2) Lectures: 
Lecturing, the most traditional way of imparting knowledge to others, is an oral tool that, when correctly delivered, can get the attention of the audience. Teachers at schools and universities educate their students by way of lecturing. A presenter or a lecturer must know that in order to help the audience understand the topic better, it is vital that the lecture contain some jokes and stories that are relevant to the subject. It is also advisable that the speaker or presenter provide the audience with a list of topics that he/she intends to discuss during the lecture. This will prove to the audience that the lecture has been systematically organized and will also help them follow it better. The outcome of a good lecture must be such that enables the audience to think in ways that are different from what is already being followed.

3) Role-Playing: 
Every topic of discussion has different point of view and one of the best ways for a presenter to help the audience understand them is by 'Role-playing'. While role-playing, a presenter can don different characters to exhibit to the audience these perspectives. To make the presentation more effective, the presenter can also play the role of the audience itself. This way, the presenter will be able to gauge the questions that the audience may pose and prepare appropriate answers for them. Role-playing is helpful technique that can make complex subjects simpler for the audience, thereby helping to impart vital information effectively.

4) Sentence Completion: 
Sentence completion is a simple yet effective technique where the presenter halts his/her sentences mid-way or only partially speaks them and expects the audience to complete the rest. A presenter often uses this technique to not only get answers from the audience but also judge how attentive the audience really is and how well they've understood what is being presented. This, in turn, helps the presenter perceive the thoughts and feelings of the audience and their mental state at that point.

5) Problem-Solving: 
Audiences, for whom these presentations are meant, are often faced with few common problems, such as stress, human conflicts, peer pressure, etc. Problem-solving techniques aim to resolve just that. Techniques of problem-solving are vast and varied and some of the common ones used are brainstorming, reverse- brainstorming, and several others. The most popular among these is the "Gordon method". named after its pioneer, Thomas Gordon.

6) Demonstrations: 
A demonstration may be defined as the process of presenting to a prospective customer how a particular product, device, or procedure operates. Hence, by using this technique, a presenter is able to give practical knowledge of the product or procedure to the audience. For example, in a product demonstration, the presenter may be required to show to the audience how a particular machine operates. In another instance, in a process demonstration, a presenter can show to his/her audience how taxes are to be filed with the government. Demonstrations can also be used by salesmen to explain to prospective customers how their needs can be fulfilled by utilizing the product that a company aims to sell. An effective demonstration will not only temper the interest of the customers but also helps the salesman keep them interested till the end of the presentation.

7) Enactments and Skills: 
A skill is a short play that briefly, and fittingly, gets the message across to the audience. Such an enactment helps the presenter in saving the presentation from becoming monotonous, thereby helping him/her avoid the risk of boring the audience, Presentations are a function of preparation, and, delivery. While in-depth preparation may contribute 75% to the success of a presentation, delivery, too holds a good 25% of the credit. Hence, for a presentation to be effective, it is imperative that the presenter invert a good amount of time and effort in rehearsing and re-rehearsing how the contents are to be communicated to the audience.

8) Case Studies: 
A case study is a detailed research on an individual, group(s) of individuals, or situations, over a long period of time, through the power of observance. These observances are then re-created and recorded, and termed as 'Case history'. Since this research is so extensive, it is often difficult to duplicate these case studies under slightly altered situations. Case studios help exemplify a subject in situations where a large number of research participants are involved and are more useful than the method of providing averages. Thoroughly examined case studies make it easier to compose presentations.

Stages of Research Report Presentation 

A presentation must be prepared and delivered in a systematic manner so as to avoid chaos and facilitate a gradual and sequential progress from one topic to another. This may be accomplished by following the four stages of a report presentation given below:

Stages of Report Presentation

1) Planning a Presentation: 
While planning a presentation, we need to first identify the objective that the presentation aims to achieve, the attributes of the audience it aims to address, and the techniques that must be utilized to deliver the message. These steps have been further explained below:

i) Identifying the Topic: 
The topic of a presentation may be defined as a phrase or sentence that briefly and precisely describes the subject contained therein. This topic may be well used as the title of the presentation. Title is the first step towards initiating the interest of the audience and establishing the presenter-audience relationship at a primary level. The title should not only be relevant and meaningful hut also such that automatically introduces the topic to the audience. A simple practice to come up with a good title is to first prepare the core presentation and then define what best describes it.

ii) Determining the Purpose: 
The purpose of a speech must be well-defined as it serves as a foundation on which the presentation is built. It helps us determine what needs to be said in the presentation and how it needs to be said so that the desired objective can be achieved.

iii) Analyzing the Audience:
To make a presentation successful, a speaker must be well-aware of the audience he/she is addressing. The speaker's understanding of the mental aptitude of the audience at large, their needs, what they expect and intend to Jake back from the presentation, and the sheer size of the audience will prove helpful in planning the methods in which he/she must deliver the presentation. Knowing who is being addressed will make the speaker more confident and also enable the speaker to effectively exploit the mental faculties of the audience. Each person, being unique, has their own way of responding and a speaker must be able to gauge and utilize these differences.

2) Delivering a Presentation: 
Rehearsing and re- rehearsing a presentation helps eliminate fear and makes the speaker more creative in approaching the audience. It helps improve the quality of the speech and the method of delivery. A well- rehearsed speech makes the audience more receptive. A speaker must face an audience only when the speech is fully rehearsed. A partly rehearsed speech can make the presentation process chaotic and the audience is bound to lose interest if such be the case.

3) Developing and Displaying Visual Aids: 
A speaker must sensibly use audio-visual aids to help attain the attention of the audience. Audio- visual aids help get rid of the monotony of a speech and stimulate the mental abilities of people. However, an excessive use of these aids can cause confusion and must be avoided.

Types of Audio-Visual aids (Media used in Presentations)

A wide variety of audio-visual aids is available these days and the speaker must select the ones that best suit the purpose of the speech. These aids have been described below:

i) Handouts: 
Handouts are typically sheets of paper that are distributed among the audience at the beginning or during the presentation. These handouts often include material such as the agenda of the speech, an outline of the presentation, case studies, reports, workbooks, and other graphical representations of the data being used in the speech such as tables, charts, diagrams, etc. Handouts help people in simultaneously following speeches and in getting a gist of the contents being discussed. 

ii) Tables: 
Tables help collate data and present them in the form of well-labelled, neat, columns and rows. They may not be the most visually appealing techniques but help present data accurately.

iii) Graphs: 
Graphs are one of the most commonly used visual aids that depict data along the basic x and y axis.

iv) Chalkboards and Whiteboards: 
Boards can be used when the audience is small and the objective therein is to extract ideas from them. They are informal visual aids that can continuously be used and re-used by writing and erasing. However, they can sometimes get chaotic, Boards can also be prepared in advance and used as and when required.

v) Flip Charts: 
Flip charts are large sheets of paper clipped together and usually mounted on top of boards for ease of use. A speaker can use a flip chart as and when the need arises, with a convenient tum of the page. Each sheet of paper can depict charts and graphs or an example that helps clarify a complicated subject. Highlighters and markers can be used by speakers to assert important points and data Flip charts are usually used when the target audience is small.

vi) Slides: 
One of the most professional approaches to effective presentations is the use of slides as a visual aid: Slides help depict charts, diagrams, and tables. Slides can only be presented in dark rooms, and therefore, it is advisable that the speaker seek the help of another person to operate these slides while the speaker himself/herself graduates from one topic to another.

vii) Computers: 
Computers are the most speaker- friendly tools of presentation. A presenter can ise computers to compose both text and images, conveniently share his/her work with the audience via emails or print-outs, and ensure that the transition in slides is in sync with the presenter's speech. Additionally, last minute changes can quickly be made to ensure the presentation is smooth. This is why they have also often been described as "Intelligent chalkboards. For example, if a presenter is educating the audience on how a substantial Increase in one's income 'makes one liable to pay additional taxes, he/she can simply add in the changed numbers and see any of the several computer tools available to depict this change. At the time of presenting, computers are generally linked to projectors that help display the contents of the screen ca a bigger platform.

viii) Videotapes, Audiotapes, Filmstrips and Films: 
Deviating from the most commonly used tools of audio and visual display can make presentations more attractive and engaging. In today's time and age, an audience gives more adulation to the use of creative techniques of delivery. These tapes and videos can be used to simplify complicated subjects. They can easily be shared with the audience and can be used to assert crucial points. For example, a tape depicting the use of complicated machinery will be more useful than a mere slide to show the same.

ix) Projectors: 
Projectors can broadly be classified into 2 major types. These are, (i) Overhead Projectors, and (ii) LCD Projectors. Overhead projectors are used in cases of transparent slides that need to be cast onto a bigger screen. These slides can be prepared with pens and sketch pens or digitally, by printing the contents from a computer onto the transparent slide. The matter on these slides can be erased and slides can be re-used. To make text clearer, it is advised that bold and block letters should be used to prepare these slides. However, in case of larger audiences, they do not prove to be helpful. LCD Projectors, on the other hand, are more powerful tool that can be used to display videos and films, besides traditional text and images. They can directly be linked to a computer and are more useful when the speaker is addressing a large audience. One major drawback of LCD Projectors is that they require a big initial investment and may not always be affordable.

x) Models and Physical Objects: 
An exact replica of a product can be used in cases where a continuous display of an object or idea is needed. These scale models help the audience visualize ideas better. Scale models ace extensively used in architectural projects to depict proposed designs of buildings.

4) Handling Questions from the Audience: 
Presentations are usually followed by a Question and Answer (Q&A) session. Even if the speaker does not state this explicitly, it is often assumed by the audience that there will be a Q&A session at the end In such a situation, it is up to the presenter to conduct the same before or after the summary. Q&A sessions are tricky and the speaker must be well prepared to face the audience not only by knowing his/her subject in- depth, but also exuding confidence while addressing the audience's concerns. A key method that a speaker can adopt while handling such sessions is investing ample time in preparing and maintaining a professional approach while displaying a body language that makes the speaker approachable.

Guidelines for Effective Research Report Presentation

The following set of guidelines help make a report presentation effective:

1) Select Objectives and Presentation Topic: 
The objective of a presentation, which may be to educate or influence an audience, must be well established. A speaker must present at an appropriate speed so as to neither bore the audience nor rush through the same. The topic must be such that the speaker has excellent knowledge of and is, therefore, able to impart additional information to the audience during the process of presenting. Knowledge, experience, and confidence of the speaker are said to be the cornerstones of an effective presentation.

2) Analyze the Audience: 
As it has already been mentioned before, it is very important for a speaker to genuinely understand his/her audience. Factors that govern an in-depth knowledge of one's audience are age, gender. educational qualification, nationality, aptitude. etc. The speaker must respect each person's individuality. To keep audience engaged during the Q&A sessions, the speaker must address the entire group and not just the person posing the question. A speaker's behavior must be such that the audience come to trust him/her.

3) Select the Type of Presentation: 
The next step would be to determine the form a presentation will take. Once the speech has been prepared, and the length has been confirmed, the speaker must decide how the same is to be presented to the audience.

4) Decide upon the Audio-Visual Aid Needed: 
To make a presentation more qualitative, the presenter must utilize audio-visual aids such as handouts, slides, videos, PowerPoint presentations, etc. The style, font, and colors used in these aids should be such that highlight the crucial points and are comfortably visible. The use of colors and patterns should make the. display more appealing.

5) Be Informed about the Venue and Equipment to be used: 
A speaker must be informed of the venue beforehand. Prior to starting a presentation, the speaker must give the venue a quick visit to gauge the size of the room, determine what pitch of voice will make the speaker audible to everyone, and determine how the audience will be placed. The speaker must also be well aware of how the presentation equipment is to be used to avoid any confusion.

6) Practice Presentation: 
The speaker must be so well-rehearsed with the presentation that he/she is able to deliver it confidently to the audience, without any glitches. Sufficient time must be invested by the speaker in practicing the speech and researching the subject thoroughly.

7) Make Body Language Effective: 
Excellent body language is one of the most important tools that make a presentation memorable. A speaker's gestures must be decent, posture must be one of confidence, must make ample eye contact with the audience, have good control over his/the voice, and generally exude confidence and an approachable attitude. The speaker must also reduce referring to the written material to a minimum. A well- practiced speech will help achieve this.

8) Prepare Assessment Form and Hand-outs: 
Hand-outs are written material distributed among the audience at the beginning of a session to educate them on what will be discussed during the presentation, enabling them to follow the presentation simultaneously and help them take back what is discussed. These hand-outs or brochures must be prepared with utmost care as they are a means for the audience to not only understand the subject of the presentation better, but also pass this information on to peers who may not have access to the same. Assessment forms, on the other hand, are another means of improving a presentation. These forms are distributed among the audience at the end of the session to attain feedback on the subject of the presentation, how helpful it was, how they felt about the presenter's level of confidence and delivery methods, and any other suggestions that they may have. Based on this feedback the presenter can aim to alter his/her future presentations.

9) Maintain Active Listening: 
A good presenter must not only be a good orator, but also be an excellent listener. The traits that define a good listener are the ability to carefully and patiently listen to what the audience has to say and correctly comprehend it, while analyzing the sentiments of the audience. This can be attained by being alternative, understanding what is being said, and carefully interpreting and analyzing it, while simultaneously preparing one's response.

10) Keep Continuous Eye Contact: 
A nervous speaker will avoid making eye contact with the audience and render the presentation ineffective. A confident speaker, on the other hand, will make continuous eye contact with the audience and address the entire group. Speakers often use the 3 second rule where they make eye contact with a person in the audience for duration of 3 seconds, and follow the same rule with other persons in the audience from time to time.

Importance of Research Report Presentation

Research report presentations play a crucial role in effectively communicating the findings and implications of a research study to a specific audience. Here are some key reasons why presentation of research report are important:

1) Communication of Research Findings: 
Research report presentations provide an opportunity to present the results of a study in a clear and concise manner. They allow researchers to convey their findings, data analysis, and interpretations to a wider audience, including colleagues, stakeholders, or decision-makers. Presentations enable researchers to showcase the significance and relevance of their work.

2) Engagement and Interaction: 
Presenting research findings in person or virtually allows for direct engagement with the audience. Researchers can interact with the audience, answer questions, and have discussions, fostering a deeper understanding of the research. This interaction helps in refining the research and gathering valuable feedback for future studies.

3) Visual Representation: 
Presentations often involve visual aids such as slides, charts, graphs, and diagrams. These visual representations help to enhance the clarity and comprehension of complex research data. Visuals make it easier for the audience to grasp the key points, trends, and patterns, improving the overall impact of the presentation.

4) Persuasion and Influence: 
Research report presentations are an opportunity to persuade and influence the audience. By presenting research findings in a compelling and logical manner, researchers can influence decision-makers or stakeholders to consider their recommendations or take necessary actions based on the results. Effective presentations can inspire others to support or collaborate on future research endeavors.

5) Knowledge Dissemination: 
Presentations contribute to the dissemination of knowledge and contribute to the advancement of a particular field or discipline. By sharing research findings, methodologies, and insights, researchers contribute to the existing body of knowledge and facilitate learning and growth within the academic and professional communities.

6) Professional Development: 
Presenting research reports enhances researchers' professional development by honing their communication and presentation skills. By organizing thoughts, synthesizing complex information, and delivering a coherent presentation, researchers improve their ability to communicate their work effectively to diverse audiences. These skills are valuable not only for academic pursuits but also for professional careers.

7) Networking and Collaboration: 
Presentations provide an opportunity for researchers to network and establish connections with colleagues, experts, and potential collaborators. By presenting their work at conferences, symposiums, or seminars, researchers can build relationships, receive feedback, and explore opportunities for future collaborations or research partnerships.